To determine the mechanical properties of a material, a universal testing machine, also called a UTM machine, applies tensile, compressive, and transverse loads to a sample. The user only needs to replace the supports and fasteners affixed to the universal testing machine to conduct diverse checks. Fabrics, metals, polymers, and concrete are among the substances that can be analyzed using this device.
Components of Universal Testing Machine
Universal testing machines consist of the following two fundamental components:
- Loading Unit
The configuration of the test sample and the implementation of the load are both set within the loading unit. The components comprise the diverse elements of a UTM loading unit:
- Load Frame
The load on the frame of universal testing machines can be either single-supported or double-supported based on the specific demands of the test. The compression test sample is positioned as part of the upper crosshead of the load frame. Additionally, the lower crosshead comprises the load frame.
- Upper and Lower Crossheads
The upper crosshead is employed to secure one side of the test sample. A height adjustment is possible for the movable crosshead of the load frame through the loosening of the crosshead’s fasteners. Each crosshead features a central groove that gradually diminishes. The jaws in this notch are intended to retain and secure the tensile test sample.
- Elongation Scale
Included with the loading unit is a scale for measuring elongation. It determines the dislocation distance between the top and bottom unit.
- Control Unit
Information is used to determine changes in the load application. The corresponding test result originates from the control unit. The fundamental components comprising the control unit of a universal testing machine are as follows:
- Unit of Hydraulic Power
The oil pump maintains a constant oil pressure in the primary cylinder of the load unit. This motion enables the specimen’s consistent insertion. A sump and an electric motor give the energy needed to operate an oil pump that is a component of a hydraulic power unit.
- Unit for Measuring Load
A pendulum dynamometer comprising a compact cylinder. It contains a piston activated by a consistent oil flow, which is integrated into this device. Connecting the pendulum and piston is a pivoting lever. Applying sufficient force to the specimen will cause the pivot lever to flex. The strength of the load indicated on the dial correlates with the displacement of the pointer.
- Control Devices
The controls may incorporate both hydraulic and electrical systems. Vertical and horizontal crosshead movement is enabled via switches on the electric controllers of the device. In any hydraulic control system, the Right and Left Control valves comprise the two halves. A proper control valve is utilized to induce tension on the specimen. They are placing the control knob to the left results in a release of pressure.
Structure and Working Principles of UTM
- Two vertical threaded shafts comprise the universal testing machine.
- The movable crosshead will be supported by these vertical bars. Constant will be the crosshead.
- The specimen will be ensured to these two crossheads using securing fasteners. These include filaments and rods, primarily for tensile testing.
- If a tensile test is conducted, the specimen will be positioned between the crosshead and the movable head mandible.
- If the test is compressive, the specimen will be positioned between the movable head and the surface.
- By operating the load applied to the specimen with the assistance of the movable crosshead, the speed of the two vertical threaded shafts is regulated by a speed controller.
- The amount of load applied to the specimen throughout the test can be observed with the assistance of the loading dial indicator.
Main Application of UTM Machine
Some of the most prevalent applications for UTMs include the following:
- Tensile testing
One prevalent application of UTM is in conducting tensile tests, which entail a gradual deformation of a material until it breaks. It aids in determining the strength, flexibility, and rigidity of the material.
- Compression testing
Compression testing is opposed to tensile testing. An item can be compressed using a universal testing machine until it attains a specific density, passes a designated distance, or breaks.
- Bending test
The material span is supported at both extremities during a bend test as a machine applies pressure to the span’s midpoint. The test continues until the material either fractures or completes a pre-established distance. The flexural strength and modulus of a material are demonstrated through bending experiments.
UMT Machine: Conclusion
Universal Testing Machines (UTMs) are vital instruments in material testing. It offers essential information regarding the mechanical characteristics of a wide range of materials. UTMs contribute to research and development and quality control in all industries. Enhanced understanding of these entities’ operational methods and importance enables a more profound admiration for the valuable data they provide.